Systematic name M3952
Brief description Cells and Molecules involved in local acute inflammatory response
Full description or abstract Inflammation has several distinct components, including the localized response at the site of tissue injury or infection. Tissue injury stimulates the release of inflammatory signaling molecules such as bradykinin. Bacterial infection stimulates an immune response in several ways. Bacteria that are phagocytosed can activate macrophages, causing the release of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, TNF, and IL-6. Bacteria can also activate the complement cascade through either the antibody-mediated pathway (classical pathway) or the alternative complement pathway. In extravascular tissues, cells that respond to infection or injury include macrophages and mast cells. Macrophages and other immune cells secrete chemokines that recruit leukocytes from the circulation to the site of inflammation. Mast cells release histamine, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes that act as chemokines, increase vascular permeability, and act on the vascular endothelium to increase tissue recruitment of leukocytes. Chemokines can recruit leukocytes or lymphocytes out of the blood stream into tissues and make blood vessels more permeable. Leukocytes are activated by inflammatory signals to express adhesion molecules that cause them to interact with the vascular endothelium, penetrate the endothelial wall and migrate into the extracellular space of tissues. The combined response of immune cells and signaling molecules at the site of inflammation induces swelling, activation of immune cells, and clearance of potential infectious agents. Chronic inflammation can however also lead to tissue damage in conditions such as arthritis, in which anti-inflammatory drugs act on various steps in inflammation to prevent disease.
Collection C2: Curated
      CP: Canonical Pathways
            CP:BIOCARTA: BioCarta Pathways
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Source species Homo sapiens
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Version history 7.0: Changed members. Upgraded to final version of Biocarta.

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