For the Mouse gene set with the same name, see BIOCARTA_MCALPAIN_PATHWAY

Systematic name M8719
Brief description mCalpain and friends in Cell motility
Full description or abstract The mammalian calpain gene family currently contains 13 distinct large subunit products most of which complex with one of two smaller 30kDa subunits. ( An excellent introduction to the calpain family can be found on a web site created by Valery Thompson ) One of the most carefully studied functions of the calpains is the regulation of integrin-mediated cell migration. Calpains digests the links between the actin cytoskeleton and several focal adhesion complex proteins; talin, paxillin and focal adhesion kinase. The release from the focal adhesion complex facilitates migration. Calpestatin is an inhibitor expressed in most cells. Calpestatin binds the four inhibitory domains of calpain. Release from calpestatin does not activate calpain. Activation requires additional signaling, coactivators and an appropriate calcium concentration. During cell migration calpain1 (mu-calpain) acts at the leading edge as a response to integrin signals or calcium fluxuations due to the stretch activated calcium channels. Calpain1 cleaves the target proteins, talin, exzrin, paxillin and the cytoplasmic tail of the integrins B1(a) and B3(b) to release the adhesion and form new adhesions. Calpain2 (M-calpain) is believed to be membrane bound and functions at the trailing edge of the migrating cell to cleave the integrins in response to growth factor receptor signals. PKA functions to down regulate or inhibit calpain2. Disease related notes: In Alzheimers disease, amyloid peptides interfere with calpain activity causing a mislocalization of cdk5. Deregulated cdk5 hyperphosphorylates tau promoting cell death in neurons. Mutations in the muscle specific calpain p94 lead to Limb Girdle muscular dystrophy 2A (LGMD2A). Over activity of calpains due to elevated calcium leads to tissue damage in the heart and brain
Collection C2: Curated
      CP: Canonical Pathways
            CP:BIOCARTA: BioCarta Pathways
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Source species Homo sapiens
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Version history 7.0: Changed members. Upgraded to final version of Biocarta.

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