For the Mouse gene set with the same name, see BIOCARTA_RACCYCD_PATHWAY

Systematic name M14512
Brief description Influence of Ras and Rho proteins on G1 to S Transition
Full description or abstract The cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase is a key regulatory point in the cell cycle. This transition is regulated by the checkpoint kinase cdk2 that activates the G1 to S transition when it is associated with cyclin E. Cdk2/Cyclin E causes the G1 to S transition through phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor Rb, releasing the transcription factor E2F-1. Other pathways acting through Rac, Ras and Rho also regulate the G1 to S transition. Ras regulates cyclin D1 expression to affect the G1 to S transition. Transforming forms of Ras or Raf induce cyclin D1 expression and cause early entry into S phase. Signaling from Ras to Raf to MEK to ERKs induces Cyclin D1 expression, allowing Cyclin D1 to complex with Cdk4 and Cdk6 and phosphorylate Rb. Rac-1 and PAK appear to induce Cyclin D1 expression and induce the G1 to S transition primarily through activation of NF-kB to activate the Cyclin D1 promoter. Rho activates cdk2 and also inhibits p21 and p27 to induce cyclin D1 and stimulate the G1 to S transition. Rho represses p21 expression to block p21 induction by Ras and to allow Ras induced progression from G1 to S. Cells that lack p21 do not require Rho for Ras to induce cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. The cooperative action of Ras, Rac and Rho to induce Cyclin D1 expression is a key component of oncogenic transformation.
Collection C2: Curated
      CP: Canonical Pathways
            CP:BIOCARTA: BioCarta Pathways
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Source species Homo sapiens
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Version history 7.0: Changed members. Upgraded to final version of Biocarta.

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