For the Mouse gene set with the same name, see BIOCARTA_TOLL_PATHWAY

Systematic name M984
Brief description Toll-Like Receptor Pathway
Full description or abstract The innate immune response responds in a general manner to factors present in invading pathogens. Bacterial factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin), bacterial lipoproteins, peptidoglycans and also CpG nucleic acids activate innate immunity as well as stimulating the antigen-specific immune response and triggering the inflammatory response. Members of the toll-like receptor (TLR) gene family convey signals stimulated by these factors, activating signal transduction pathways that result in transcriptional regulation and stimulate immune function. TLR2 is activated by bacterial lipoproteins, TLR4 is activated by LPS, and TLR9 is activated by CpG DNA; peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) is activated by peptidoglycan (PGN). The downstream signaling pathways used by these receptors are similar to that used by the IL-1 receptor, activating the IL-1 receptor associated kinase (IRAK) through the MyD88 adaptor protein, and signaling through TRAF-6 and protein kinase cascades to activate NF-kB and Jun. NF-kB and c-Jun activate transcription of genes such as the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-12. Several recent reports have suggested that the functional outcomes of signaling via TLR2, TLR4 and PGRP are not equivalent. For example, while the LPS-induced, p38-dependent response was dependent upon PU.1 binding, the PGN-induced, p38 response was not. The intracelular receptor for PGN, PGRP is conserved from insects to mammals. In insects, PGRP activates prophenoloxidase cascade, a part of the insect antimicrobial defense system. Because mammals do not have the prophenoloxidase cascade, its function in mammals is unknown. However, it was suggested that an identical protein Tag7 was a tumor necrosis factor-like (TNF-like) cytokine. PGRP/Tag7 possesses cytotoxicity and triggers intranucleosomal DNA fragmentation in target cells in the same way as many known members of the TNF family. Fragmentation of DNA is one of the characteristics of apoptosis. The possibility that in another system, PGRP/Tag7 would induce NF-kB activation, as observed for TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) receptors canot be ruled out.
Collection C2: Curated
      CP: Canonical Pathways
            CP:BIOCARTA: BioCarta Pathways
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Source species Homo sapiens
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Version history 7.0: Changed members. Upgraded to final version of Biocarta.

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