Systematic name M12975
Brief description VEGF, Hypoxia, and Angiogenesis
Full description or abstract Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in physiological blood vessel formation and pathological angiogenesis such as tumor growth and ischemic diseases. Hypoxia is a potent inducer of VEGF in vitro. The increase in secreted biologically active VEGF protein from cells exposed to hypoxia is partly because of an increased transcription rate, mediated by binding of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1) to a hypoxia responsive element in the 5'-flanking region of the VEGF gene. bHLH-PAS transcription factor that interacts with the Ah receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt), and its predicted amino acid sequence exhibits significant similarity to the hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF1a) product. HLF mRNA expression is closely correlated with that of VEGF mRNA.. The high expression level of HLF mRNA in the O2 delivery system of developing embryos and adult organs suggests that in a normoxic state, HLF regulates gene expression of VEGF, various glycolytic enzymes, and others driven by the HRE sequence, and may be involved in development of blood vessels and the tubular system of lung. VEGF expression is dramatically induced by hypoxia due in large part to an increase in the stability of its mRNA. HuR binds with high affinity and specificity to the VRS element that regulates VEGF mRNA stability by hypoxia. In addition, an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) ensures efficient translation of VEGF mRNA even under hypoxia. The VHL tumor suppressor (von Hippel-Lindau) regulates also VEGF expression at a post-transcriptional level. The secreted VEGF is a major angiogenic factor that regulates multiple endothelial cell functions, including mitogenesis. Cellular and circulating levels of VEGF are elevated in hematologic malignancies and are adversely associated with prognosis. Angiogenesis is a very complex, tightly regulated, multistep process, the targeting of which may well prove useful in the creation of novel therapeutic agents. Current approaches being investigated include the inhibition of angiogenesis stimulants (e.g., VEGF), or their receptors, blockade of endothelial cell activation, inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases, and inhibition of tumor vasculature. Preclinical, phase I, and phase II studies of both monoclonal antibodies to VEGF and blockers of the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase pathway indicate that these agents are safe and offer potential clinical utility in patients with hematologic malignancies.
Collection C2: Curated
      CP: Canonical Pathways
            CP:BIOCARTA: BioCarta Pathways
Source publication  
Exact source  
Related gene sets  
External links
Filtered by similarity ?
Source species Homo sapiens
Contributed by BioCarta
Source platform or
identifier namespace
Dataset references  
Download gene set format: grp | gmt | xml | json | TSV metadata
Compute overlaps ? (show collections to investigate for overlap with this gene set)
Compendia expression profiles ? NG-CHM interactive heatmaps
(Please note that clustering takes a few seconds)
GTEx compendium
Human tissue compendium (Novartis)
Global Cancer Map (Broad Institute)
NCI-60 cell lines (National Cancer Institute)

Legacy heatmaps (PNG)
GTEx compendium
Human tissue compendium (Novartis)
Global Cancer Map (Broad Institute)
NCI-60 cell lines (National Cancer Institute)
Advanced query Further investigate these 27 genes
Gene families ? Categorize these 27 genes by gene family
Show members (show 76 source identifiers mapped to 27 genes)
Version history 7.0: Changed members. Upgraded to final version of Biocarta.

See MSigDB license terms here. Please note that certain gene sets have special access terms.