Systematic name M12975
Brief description VEGF, Hypoxia, and Angiogenesis
Full description or abstract Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in physiological blood vessel formation and pathological angiogenesis such as tumor growth and ischemic diseases. Hypoxia is a potent inducer of VEGF in vitro. The increase in secreted biologically active VEGF protein from cells exposed to hypoxia is partly because of an increased transcription rate, mediated by binding of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1) to a hypoxia responsive element in the 5'-flanking region of the VEGF gene. bHLH-PAS transcription factor that interacts with the Ah receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt), and its predicted amino acid sequence exhibits significant similarity to the hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF1a) product. HLF mRNA expression is closely correlated with that of VEGF mRNA.. The high expression level of HLF mRNA in the O2 delivery system of developing embryos and adult organs suggests that in a normoxic state, HLF regulates gene expression of VEGF, various glycolytic enzymes, and others driven by the HRE sequence, and may be involved in development of blood vessels and the tubular system of lung. VEGF expression is dramatically induced by hypoxia due in large part to an increase in the stability of its mRNA. HuR binds with high affinity and specificity to the VRS element that regulates VEGF mRNA stability by hypoxia. In addition, an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) ensures efficient translation of VEGF mRNA even under hypoxia. The VHL tumor suppressor (von Hippel-Lindau) regulates also VEGF expression at a post-transcriptional level. The secreted VEGF is a major angiogenic factor that regulates multiple endothelial cell functions, including mitogenesis. Cellular and circulating levels of VEGF are elevated in hematologic malignancies and are adversely associated with prognosis. Angiogenesis is a very complex, tightly regulated, multistep process, the targeting of which may well prove useful in the creation of novel therapeutic agents. Current approaches being investigated include the inhibition of angiogenesis stimulants (e.g., VEGF), or their receptors, blockade of endothelial cell activation, inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases, and inhibition of tumor vasculature. Preclinical, phase I, and phase II studies of both monoclonal antibodies to VEGF and blockers of the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase pathway indicate that these agents are safe and offer potential clinical utility in patients with hematologic malignancies.
Collection C2: curated gene sets
      CP: canonical pathways
            CP:BIOCARTA: BioCarta gene sets
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Organism Homo sapiens
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Version history 7.0: Changed members. Upgraded to final version of Biocarta.

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