Gene Set: KEGG_AUTOIMMUNE_THYROID_DISEASE

Standard name KEGG_AUTOIMMUNE_THYROID_DISEASE
Systematic name M13103
Brief description Autoimmune thyroid disease
Full description or abstract The classification of autoimmune throid disease (AITD) includes Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and its variants, Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis or primary myxedema. HT is characterized by the presence of goitre, thyroid autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) in serum and varying degrees of thyroid dysfunction. During HT, self-reactive CD4+ T lymphocytes (Th) recruit B cells and CD8+ T cells (CTL) into the thyroid. Disease progression leads to the death of thyroid cells and hypothyroidism. Both autoantibodies and thyroid-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have been proposed to be responsible for autoimmune thyrocyte depletion. In GD, the TSH-R is the most important autoantigen. Antibodies directed against it mimic the effects of the hormone on thyroid cells, TSH, stimulating autonomous production of thyroxine and triiodothyronine and causing hyperthyroidism. The presence of TSH-R-blocking antibodies that bind the TSH receptor in a similar fashion to the antibodies in patients with Graves' disease but that block rather than activate the receptor explains some cases of atrophic hypothyroidism.
Collection C2: curated gene sets
      CP: canonical pathways
            CP:KEGG: KEGG gene sets
Source publication  
Exact source hsa05320
Related gene sets  
External links http://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway/hsa/hsa05320.html
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Organism Homo sapiens
Contributed by KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes)
Source platform Human_NCBI_Gene_ID
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