Systematic name M19166
Brief description Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - chondroitin sulfate
Full description or abstract Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polysaccharide chains consisting of repeating disaccharide units and form proteglycans by covalently attaching to their core proteins. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan with the disaccharide unit GalNAc(b1-4)GlcA(b1-3), modified with ester-linked sulfate at certain positions. Dermatan sulfate (DS) is a modified form of CS, in which a portion of D-glucuronate residues is epimerized to L-iduronates. CS and DS are linked to serine residues in core proteins via a linkage tetrasaccharide formed by the transfer of xylose and three more residues. The assembly process of CS is initiated by the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine to the linkage tetrasaccharide. The polymerization step is catalyzed by bifunctional enzymes (chondroitin synthases) that have both b13 glucuronosyltransferase and b14 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activities. Chondroitin polymerization also requires the action of the chondroitin polymerizing factor. Sulfation of chondroitin in vertebrates is a complex process, with multiple sulfotransferases involved in 4-O sulfation and 6-O sulfation of N-acetylgalactosamine residues. Additional enzymes exist for epimerization of glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in DS, sulfation at the C-2 position of the uronic acids, and other patterns of sulfation found in unusual species of chondroitin.
Collection C2: Curated
      CP: Canonical Pathways
            CP:KEGG_LEGACY: KEGG Legacy Pathways
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Exact source hsa00532
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Source species Homo sapiens
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