Standard name KEGG_MELANOMA
Systematic name M15798
Brief description Melanoma
Full description or abstract Five distinct stages have been proposed in the evolution of melanoma on the basis of histological criteria: common acquired and congenital nevi without dysplastic changes; dysplastic nevi with structural and architectural atypia; radial-growth phase (RGP) melanoma; vertical-growth phase (VGP) melanoma; and metastatic melanoma. Oncogenic NRAS mutations activate both effector pathways Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt. The Raf-MEK-ERK pathway may also be activated via mutations in the BRAF gene. The PI3K-Akt pathway may be activated through loss or mutation of the inhibitory tumor suppressor gene PTEN. These mutations arise early during melanoma pathogenesis and are preserved throughout tumor progression. Moreover, melanoma development is strongly associated with inactivation of the p16INK4a/CDK4,6/pRb and p14ARF/HMD2/p53 tumor suppressor pathways. The vertical-growth phase and metastatic melanoma are notable for striking changes in the control of cell adhesion. Recently, amplification of the MITF gene was demonstrated in 10% of primary melanomas and 20% of metastatic melanomas, suggesting that MITF is a melanoma oncogene.
Collection C2: Curated
      CP: Canonical Pathways
            CP:KEGG_LEGACY: KEGG Legacy Pathways
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Exact source hsa05218
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Source species Homo sapiens
Contributed by KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes)
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