Systematic name M9951
Brief description Genes up-regulated in MDA468 cells (breast cancer) vs DU99 cells (normal breast) after treatment with azacytidine [PubChem=9444].
Full description or abstract Treatment of the breast cancer cell line, MDAMB468 with the DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) results in growth arrest, whereas the growth of the normal breast epithelial line DU99 (telomerase immortalized) is relatively unaffected. Comparing gene expression profiles of these two lines after 5-AzaC treatment, we identified 36 genes that had relatively low basal levels in MDAMB468 cells compared to the DU99 line and were induced in the cancer cell line but not in the normal breast epithelial line. Of these genes, 33 have associated CpG islands greater than 300 bp in length but only three have been previously described as targets for aberrant methylation in human cancer. Northern blotting for five of these genes (alpha-Catenin, DTR, FYN, GADD45a, and Zyxin) verified the array results. Further analysis of one of these genes, GADD45a, showed that 5-AzaC induced expression in five additional breast cancer cell lines with little or no induction in three additional lines derived from normal breast epithelial cells. The CpG island associated with GADD45a was analysed by bisulfite sequencing, sampling over 100 CpG dinucleotides. We found that four CpG's, located approximately 700 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site are methylated in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and primary tumors but not in DNA from normal breast epithelia or matched lymphocytes from cancer patients. Therefore, this simple method of dynamic transcriptional profiling yielded a series of novel methylation-sensitive genes in breast cancer including the BRCA1 and p53 responsive gene, GADD45a.
Collection C2: Curated
      CGP: Chemical and Genetic Perturbations
Source publication Pubmed 15735726   Authors: Wang W,Huper G,Guo Y,Murphy SK,Olson JA Jr,Marks JR
Exact source Table 1
Related gene sets (show 160 gene sets from the same authors)
External links
Filtered by similarity ?
Source species Homo sapiens
Contributed by Leona Saunders (MSigDB Team)
Source platform or
identifier namespace
Dataset references  
Download gene set format: grp | gmt | xml | json | TSV metadata
Compute overlaps ? (show collections to investigate for overlap with this gene set)
Compendia expression profiles ? NG-CHM interactive heatmaps
(Please note that clustering takes a few seconds)
GTEx compendium
Human tissue compendium (Novartis)
Global Cancer Map (Broad Institute)
NCI-60 cell lines (National Cancer Institute)

Legacy heatmaps (PNG)
GTEx compendium
Human tissue compendium (Novartis)
Global Cancer Map (Broad Institute)
NCI-60 cell lines (National Cancer Institute)
Advanced query Further investigate these 35 genes
Gene families ? Categorize these 35 genes by gene family
Show members (show 35 source identifiers mapped to 35 genes)
Version history 3.0: First introduced

See MSigDB license terms here. Please note that certain gene sets have special access terms.