Systematic name M7239
Brief description Apoptotic DNA fragmentation and tissue homeostasis
Full description or abstract Apoptotic cell death can be triggered by many different cellular stimuli, resulting in activation of apoptotic signaling pathways including caspases and mitochondria. A cellular response that is characteristic of apoptosis is fragmentation of the nuclear genome to create a nucleosomal ladder. This activity is conducted by multiple nucleases activated by apoptotic signaling pathways. One nuclease involved in apoptosis is DNA fragmentation factor (DFF), a caspase-activated DNAse (CAD). DFF/CAD is activated through cleavage of its associated inhibitor ICAD by caspases proteases during apoptosis. DFF/CAD interacts with chromatin components such as topo II and histone H1 to condense chromatin structure and perhaps recruit CAD to chromatin. Another apoptosis activated protease is endonuclease G, EndoG. EndoG is encoded in the nuclear genome but is localized to mitochondria in normal cells. EndoG may play a role in the replication of the mitochondrial genome, as well as in apoptosis. Apoptotic signaling causes the release of EndoG from mitochondria. Mitochondria are involved in apoptotic signaling in other ways as well, through the release of cytochrome c induced by Bid to activate the caspase protease cascade. These pathways are independent since the EndoG pathway still occurs in cells lacking DFF.
Collection C2: curated gene sets
      CP: canonical pathways
            CP:BIOCARTA: BioCarta gene sets
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Organism Homo sapiens
Contributed by BioCarta
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Version history 7.0: Changed members. Upgraded to final version of Biocarta.

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